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5:53 PM
150 лет со дня рождения Марии Кюри / 150 years since the birth of Marie Curie

Мари́я Склодо́вская-Кюри́ (фр. Marie Curie, польск. Maria Skłodowska-Curie; урождённая Мария Саломея Склодовская, польск. Maria Salomea Skłodowska; 7 ноября 1867 года, Варшава, Царство Польское, Российская империя4 июля 1934 года, близ Санселльмоза, Франция) — французская (польская) учёная-экспериментатор (физик, химик), педагог, общественная деятельница. Удостоена Нобелевской премии: по физике (1903) и по химии (1911)[10], первый дважды нобелевский лауреат в истории[10]. Основала Институты Кюри в Париже и в Варшаве. Жена Пьера Кюри, вместе с ним занималась исследованием радиоактивности. Совместно с мужем открыла элементы радий (от лат. radius «луч») и полоний (от латинского названия Польши, Polōnia — дань уважения родине Марии Склодовской).

Мария Склодовская родилась в Варшаве в семье учителя Владислава Склодовского, где, помимо Марии, росли ещё три дочери и сын. Сёстрами и братом Мари были Зофия (1862), Юзеф (1863), Бронислава (1865) и Хелена (1866). Семья жила трудно, мать долго и мучительно умирала от туберкулёза, отец выбивался из сил, чтобы лечить больную жену и кормить пятерых детей. Её детские годы были омрачены ранней потерей одной из сестёр и вскоре — матери[11].

Ещё школьницей она отличалась необычайным прилежанием и трудолюбием. Мария стремилась выполнить работу самым тщательным образом, не допуская неточностей, часто ради этого жертвуя сном и регулярностью питания. Она занималась настолько интенсивно, что, окончив школу, была вынуждена сделать перерыв для поправки здоровья.

Мария Склодовская стала первой в истории Сорбонны женщиной-преподавателем. В 1894 году в доме польского физика-эмигранта Мария Склодовская встретила Пьера Кюри. Пьер был руководителем лаборатории при Муниципальной школе промышленной физики и химии. К тому времени он провёл важные исследования по физике кристаллов и зависимости магнитных свойств веществ от температуры; с его именем, например, связан термин «точка Кюри», обозначающий температуру, при которой ферромагнитный материал скачкообразно теряет свойство ферромагнетизма. Мария занималась исследованием намагниченности стали, и её польский друг надеялся, что Пьер сможет предоставить Марии возможность поработать в своей лаборатории.

26 июля 1895 года Пьер и Мария вступили в брак.

Вскоре после рождения первой дочери Ирен (12 сентября 1897 года) Мария начала работу над своей докторской диссертацией, посвящённой исследованию радиоактивности.

Незадолго до начала Первой мировой войны (август 1914 года) Парижский университет и Пастеровский институт учредили Радиевый институт для исследований радиоактивности. Кюри была назначена директором отделения фундаментальных исследований и медицинского применения радиоактивности. Во время войны она обучала военных медиков применению радиологии, в частности, обнаружению с помощью рентгеновских лучей шрапнели в теле раненого. В прифронтовой зоне Кюри помогала создавать радиологические установки, снабжать пункты первой помощи переносными рентгеновскими аппаратами. Накопленный опыт она обобщила в монографии «Радиология и война» в 1920 г.

После войны Кюри возвратилась в Радиевый институт. В последние годы своей жизни она руководила работами студентов и активно способствовала применению радиологии в медицине. Она написала биографию Пьера Кюри, которая была опубликована в 1923 году. Периодически Кюри совершала поездки в Польшу, которая в 1918 году обрела независимость; там она консультировала польских исследователей. В 1921 году вместе с дочерьми Кюри посетила Соединённые Штаты, чтобы принять в дар 1 грамм радия для продолжения опытов. Во время своего второго визита в США в 1929 году она получила пожертвование, на которое приобрела ещё грамм радия для терапевтического использования в одном из варшавских госпиталей. Но вследствие многолетней работы с радием её здоровье стало заметно ухудшаться.

Мария Кюри скончалась 4 июля 1934 года от апластической анемии в небольшой больнице местечка Санселльмоза во французских Альпах.

Исследователи, работавшие с солями урана, уже знали, что фотографические пластинки лучше держать от них подальше, иначе по неизвестной причине пластинки оказывались засвеченными. Французский физик Антуан Анри Беккерель задался целью изучить это явление — его отец ранее открыл факт светового излучения в невидимой для глаза ультрафиолетовой области. После серии экспериментов, проведённых в темноте, Анри Беккерель обнаружил, что изучаемый феномен никак не связан со взаимодействием соли урана и солнечного света, а что им наблюдается новое излучение, радиация вещества, — явление, получившее впоследствии название «радиоактивности».

Мария Кюри побудила Пьера провести сравнение соединений урана, полученных из разных месторождений, по интенсивности их радиации — соли урана в то время использовались для получения цветного стекла.

Не имея лаборатории и работая в помещении институтской кладовки, а позже в сарае на улице Ломон в Париже, с 1898 по 1902 годы супруги Кюри переработали восемь тонн уранинита[16].

Методом их работы было измерение степени ионизации воздуха, интенсивность которой определялась по силе тока между пластинами, на одну из которой подавалось напряжение 600 В. Оказалось, что образцы руды, доставленные из месторождения Йоахимсталь в Чехии, демонстрируют вчетверо более сильную ионизацию, чем другие. Супруги Кюри не прошли мимо этого факта и попытались установить, даёт ли то же по составу соединение урана, полученное искусственно, такой же эффект повышенной ионизации воздуха — результат оказался отрицательным. Этот эксперимент 1898 года дал основание предположить, что исследователи имеют дело с присутствием ещё одного радиоактивного вещества помимо урана. Производя изучение выделенных различными химическими методами фракций урановой руды, Кюри выявили такую, которая имела в миллион раз более сильную радиоактивность, чем чистый уран.

Однажды Кюри обнаружили, что выделенная ими фракция светится. Спектральный анализ показал, что в спектре присутствуют линии излучения неизвестного до тех пор элемента, который был назван супругами радием. Им удалось выделить одну сотую грамма нового вещества. В том же 1898 году был открыт полоний — элемент, названный в честь Польши, родины Марии Кюри.

Тогда же перед супругами встал вопрос о патентовании своего открытия. И они решили не предпринимать никаких шагов в этом отношении, предоставив своё открытие безвозмездно на пользу человечества.

В 1903 году Мария и Пьер Кюри совместно с Анри Беккерелем получили Нобелевскую премию по физике «за выдающиеся заслуги в совместных исследованиях явлений радиации». (Теперь они наконец получили возможность оснастить свою лабораторию необходимой аппаратурой и купить для своей квартиры ванну.) Руки супругов Кюри покрылись ранами от постоянного контакта с радиоактивными образцами, что послужило возникновению идеи об использовании радия в медицинской практике. Это обстоятельство было подчёркнуто Пьером Кюри в его Нобелевской речи.

После гибели мужа в результате трагической случайности (19 апреля 1906 года он попал под колёса конной повозки) Мария Кюри была назначена на его место в Парижском университете (официально как «исполняющая обязанности профессора кафедры») и с головой ушла в работу.

В 1910 году ей удалось в сотрудничестве с Андре Дебьерном выделить чистый металлический радий, а не его соединения, как прежде. Таким образом, был завершён 12-летний цикл исследований, в результате которого было неоспоримо доказано, что радий является самостоятельным химическим элементом.

https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%A1%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%B2%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D1%8F-%D0%9A%D1%8E%D1%80%D0%B8,_%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%B8%D1%8F

Marie Skłodowska Curie (/ˈkjʊri, kjʊˈriː/;[3] French: [kyʁi]; Polish: [kʲiˈri]; 7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934; born Maria Salomea Skłodowska; [ˈmarja salɔˈmɛa skwɔˈdɔfska]) was a Polish and naturalized-French physicist and chemist who conducted pioneering research on radioactivity. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, the first person and only woman to win twice, the only person to win a Nobel Prize in two different sciences, and was part of the Curie family legacy of five Nobel Prizes. She was also the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris, and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéon in Paris.

She was born in Warsaw, in what was then the Kingdom of Poland, part of the Russian Empire. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Flying University and began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. In 1891, aged 24, she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris, where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. She shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with physicist Henri Becquerel. She won the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

Her achievements included the development of the theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined[4][5][6]), techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes, and the discovery of two elements, polonium and radium. Under her direction, the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms, using radioactive isotopes. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and in Warsaw, which remain major centres of medical research today. During World War I, she developed mobile radiography units to provide X-ray services to field hospitals.

While a French citizen, Marie Skłodowska Curie, who used both surnames,[7][8] never lost her sense of Polish identity. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland.[9] She named the first chemical element that she discovered‍—‌polonium, which she isolated in 1898‍—‌after her native country.[a]

Marie Curie died in 1934, aged 66, at a sanatorium in Sancellemoz (Haute-Savoie), France, of aplastic anemia from exposure to radiation in the course of her scientific research and in the course of her radiological work at field hospitals during World War I.[10]

In 1895, Wilhelm Roentgen discovered the existence of X-rays, though the mechanism behind their production was not yet understood.[27] In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium salts emitted rays that resembled X-rays in their penetrating power.[27] He demonstrated that this radiation, unlike phosphorescence, did not depend on an external source of energy but seemed to arise spontaneously from uranium itself. Influenced by these two important discoveries, Marie decided to look into uranium rays as a possible field of research for a thesis.[11][27]

She used an innovative technique to investigate samples. Fifteen years earlier, her husband and his brother had developed a version of the electrometer, a sensitive device for measuring electric charge.[27] Using Pierre's electrometer, she discovered that uranium rays caused the air around a sample to conduct electricity. Using this technique, her first result was the finding that the activity of the uranium compounds depended only on the quantity of uranium present.[27] She hypothesized that the radiation was not the outcome of some interaction of molecules but must come from the atom itself.[27] This hypothesis was an important step in disproving the ancient assumption that atoms were indivisible.[27][28]

In 1897, her daughter Irène was born. To support her family, Curie began teaching at the École Normale Supérieure.[22] The Curies did not have a dedicated laboratory; most of their research was carried out in a converted shed next to the School of Physics and Chemistry.[22] The shed, formerly a medical school dissecting room, was poorly ventilated and not even waterproof.[29] They were unaware of the deleterious effects of radiation exposure attendant on their continued unprotected work with radioactive substances. The School did not sponsor her research, but she would receive subsidies from metallurgical and mining companies and from various organizations and governments.[22][29][30]

Curie's systematic studies included two uranium minerals, pitchblende and torbernite (also known as chalcolite).[29] Her electrometer showed that pitchblende was four times as active as uranium itself, and chalcolite twice as active. She concluded that, if her earlier results relating the quantity of uranium to its activity were correct, then these two minerals must contain small quantities of another substance that was far more active than uranium.[29][31] She began a systematic search for additional substances that emit radiation, and by 1898 she discovered that the element thorium was also radioactive.[27] Pierre was increasingly intrigued by her work. By mid-1898 he was so invested in it that he decided to drop his work on crystals and to join her.[22][29]

The [research] idea [writes Reid] was her own; no one helped her formulate it, and although she took it to her husband for his opinion she clearly established her ownership of it. She later recorded the fact twice in her biography of her husband to ensure there was no chance whatever of any ambiguity. It [is] likely that already at this early stage of her career [she] realized that... many scientists would find it difficult to believe that a woman could be capable of the original work in which she was involved.[32]

She was acutely aware of the importance of promptly publishing her discoveries and thus establishing her priority. Had not Becquerel, two years

She was acutely aware of the importance of promptly publishing her discoveries and thus establishing her priority. Had not Becquerel, two years earlier, presented his discovery to the Académie des Sciences the day after he made it, credit for the discovery of radioactivity, and even a Nobel Prize, would instead have gone to Silvanus Thompson. Curie chose the same rapid means of publication. Her paper, giving a brief and simple account of her work, was presented for her to the Académie on 12 April 1898 by her former professor, Gabriel Lippmann.[33] Even so, just as Thompson had been beaten by Becquerel, so Curie was beaten in the race to tell of her discovery that thorium gives off rays in the same way as uranium; two months earlier, Gerhard Carl Schmidt had published his own finding in Berlin.[34]

At that time, no one else in the world of physics had noticed what Curie recorded in a sentence of her paper, describing how much greater were the activities of pitchblende and chalcolite than uranium itself: "The fact is very remarkable, and leads to the belief that these minerals may contain an element which is much more active than uranium." She later would recall how she felt "a passionate desire to verify this hypothesis as rapidly as possible."[34] On 14 April 1898, the Curies optimistically weighed out a 100-gram sample of pitchblende and ground it with a pestle and mortar. They did not realize at the time that what they were searching for was present in such minute quantities that they would eventually have to process tons of the ore.[34]

In July 1898, Curie and her husband published a joint paper announcing the existence of an element which they named "polonium", in honour of her native Poland, which would for another twenty years remain partitioned among three empires (Russian, Austrian, and Prussian).[11] On 26 December 1898, the Curies announced the existence of a second element, which they named "radium", from the Latin word for "ray".[22][29][35] In the course of their research, they also coined the word "radioactivity".[11]

To prove their discoveries beyond any doubt, the Curies sought to isolate polonium and radium in pure form.[29] Pitchblende is a complex mineral; the chemical separation of its constituents was an arduous task. The discovery of polonium had been relatively easy; chemically it resembles the element bismuth, and polonium was the only bismuth-like substance in the ore.[29] Radium, however, was more elusive; it is closely related chemically to barium, and pitchblende contains both elements. By 1898 the Curies had obtained traces of radium, but appreciable quantities, uncontaminated with barium, were still beyond reach.[36] The Curies undertook the arduous task of separating out radium salt by differential crystallization. From a ton of pitchblende, one-tenth of a gram of radium chloride was separated in 1902. In 1910, she isolated pure radium metal.[29][37] She never succeeded in isolating polonium, which has a half-life of only 138 days.[29]

Between 1898 and 1902, the Curies published, jointly or separately, a total of 32 scientific papers, including one that announced that, when exposed to radium, diseased, tumor-forming cells were destroyed faster than healthy cells.[38]

In 1900, Curie became the first woman faculty member at the École Normale Supérieure, and her husband joined the faculty of the University of Paris.[39][40] In 1902 she visited Poland on the occasion of her father's death.[22]

In June 1903, supervised by Gabriel Lippmann, Curie was awarded her doctorate from the University of Paris.[22][41] That month the couple were invited to the Royal Institution in London to give a speech on radioactivity; being a woman, she was prevented from speaking, and Pierre alone was allowed to.[42] Meanwhile, a new industry began developing, based on radium.[39] The Curies did not patent their discovery and benefited little from this increasingly profitable business.[29][39]

In December 1903, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences awarded Pierre Curie, Marie Curie, and Henri Becquerel the Nobel Prize in Physics, "in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel."[22] At first, the Committee intended to honour only Pierre and Becquerel, but one of the committee members and an advocate of women scientists, Swedish mathematician Magnus Goesta Mittag-Leffler, alerted Pierre to the situation, and after his complaint, Marie's name was added to the nomination.[43] Marie was the first woman to be awarded a Nobel Prize.[22]

Curie and her husband declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize in person; they were too busy with their work, and Pierre, who disliked public ceremonies, was feeling increasingly ill.[42][43] As Nobel laureates were required to deliver a lecture, the Curies finally undertook the trip in 1905.[43] The award money allowed the Curies to hire their first laboratory assistant.[43] Following the award of the Nobel Prize, and galvanized by an offer from the University of Geneva, which offered Pierre a position, the University of Paris gave Pierre a professorship and the chair of physics, although the Curies still did not have a proper laboratory.[22][39][40] Upon Pierre's complaint, the University of Paris relented and agreed to furnish a new laboratory, but it would not be ready until 1906.[43]

In December 1904, Curie gave birth to their second daughter, Ève.[43] She hired Polish governesses to teach her daughters her native language, and sent or took them on visits to Poland.[9]

On 19 April 1906, Pierre was killed in a road accident. Walking across the Rue Dauphine in heavy rain, he was struck by a horse-drawn vehicle and fell under its wheels, causing his skull to fracture.[22][44] Curie was devastated by her husband's death.[45] On 13 May 1906 the physics department of the University of Paris decided to retain the chair that had been created for Pierre and to offer it to Marie. She accepted it, hoping to create a world-class laboratory as a tribute to Pierre.[45][46] She was the first woman to become a professor at the University of Paris.[22]

Curie's quest to create a new laboratory did not end with the University of Paris, however. In her later years, she headed the Radium Institute (Institut du radium, now Curie Institute, Institut Curie), a radioactivity laboratory created for her by the Pasteur Institute and the University of Paris.[46] The initiative for creating the Radium Institute had come in 1909 from Pierre Paul Émile Roux, director of the Pasteur Institute, who had been disappointed that the University of Paris was not giving Curie a proper laboratory and had suggested that she move to the Pasteur Institute.[22][47] Only then, with the threat of Curie leaving, did the University of Paris relent, and eventually the Curie Pavilion became a joint initiative of the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute.[47]

In 1910, Curie succeeded in isolating radium; she also defined an international standard for radioactive emissions that was eventually named for her and Pierre: the curie.[46] Nevertheless, in 1911 the French Academy of Sciences did not elect her to be a member by one[22] or two votes.[48] Elected instead was Édouard Branly, an inventor who had helped Guglielmo Marconi develop the wireless telegraph.[49]

A doctoral student of Curie, Marguerite Perey, became the first woman elected to membership in the Academy – over half a century later, in 1962. Despite Curie's fame as a scientist working for France, the public's attitude tended toward xenophobia—the same that had led to the Dreyfus affair–which also fueled false speculation that Curie was Jewish.[22][48] During the French Academy of Sciences elections, she was vilified by the right wing press who criticised her for being a foreigner and an atheist.[48] Her daughter later remarked on the public hypocrisy as the French press often portrayed Curie as an unworthy foreigner when she was nominated for a French honour, but would portray her as a French hero when she received a foreign one such as her Nobel Prizes.[22]

In 1911, it was revealed that in 1910–11 Curie had conducted an affair of about a year's duration with physicist Paul Langevin, a former student of Pierre's[50]—a married man who was estranged from his wife.[48] This resulted in a press scandal that was exploited by her academic opponents. Curie (then in her mid-40s) was five years older than Langevin and was misrepresented in the tabloids as a foreign Jewish home-wrecker.[51] When the scandal broke, she was away at a conference in Belgium; on her return, she found an angry mob in front of her house and had to seek refuge, with her daughters, in the home of her friend, Camille Marbo.[48]

International recognition for her work had been growing to new heights, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, overcoming opposition prompted by the Langevin scandal, honored her a second time, with the 1911 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.[14] This award was "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element."[52] She was the first person to win or share two Nobel Prizes, and remains alone with Linus Pauling as Nobel laureates in two fields each. A delegation of celebrated Polish men of learning, headed by novelist Henryk Sienkiewicz, encouraged her to return to Poland and continue her research in her native country.[14] Curie's second Nobel Prize enabled her to persuade the French government into supporting the Radium Institute, built in 1914, where research was conducted in chemistry, physics, and medicine.[47] A month after accepting her 1911 Nobel Prize, she was hospitalised with depression and a kidney ailment. For most of 1912 she avoided public life but did spend time in England with her friend and fellow physicist, Hertha Ayrton. She returned to her laboratory only in December, after a break of about 14 months.[52]

In 1912, the Warsaw Scientific Society offered her the directorship of a new laboratory in Warsaw but she declined, focusing on the developing Radium Institute to be completed in August 1914, and on a new street named Rue Pierre-Curie.[47][52] She visited Poland in 1913 and was welcomed in Warsaw but the visit was mostly ignored by the Russian authorities. The Institute's development was interrupted by the coming war, as most researchers were drafted into the French Army, and it fully resumed its activities in 1919.[47][52][53]

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie_Curie

 

Category: История науки- Нistory of science | Added by: zvonimirveres
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