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10:57 AM
210 лет со дня рождения Чарльза Дарвина / 210 years since the birth of Charles Darwin

Чарлз Ро́берт Да́рвин (12 февраля 180919 апреля 1882) — английский натуралист и путешественник, одним из первых пришедший к выводу и обосновавший идею о том, что все виды живых организмов эволюционируют со временем и происходят от общих предков. В своей теории, развёрнутое изложение которой было опубликовано в 1859 году в книге «Происхождение видов», основным механизмом эволюции видов Дарвин назвал естественный отбор. Позднее развивал теорию полового отбора. Ему также принадлежит одно из первых обобщающих исследований о происхождении человека.

Дарвин опубликовал одну из первых работ по этологии «Выражение эмоций у человека и животных». Другими направлениями его исследований были создание модели возникновения коралловых рифов и определение законов наследственности. По итогам селекционных экспериментов Дарвин выдвинул гипотезу наследственности (пангенезис), которая так и не получила подтверждения.

Происхождение биологического разнообразия в результате эволюции было признано большинством биологов ещё при жизни Дарвина, в то время как его теория естественного отбора как основного механизма эволюции стала общепризнанной только в 50-х годах XX столетия с появлением синтетической теории эволюции. Идеи и открытия Дарвина в переработанном виде формируют фундамент современной синтетической теории эволюции и составляют основу биологии как обеспечивающие объяснение биоразнообразия. Термин «дарвинизм» используют для обозначения эволюционных моделей, восходящих в основе к идеям Дарвина, а в обыденной речи «дарвинизмом» часто называют эволюционную теорию и современный научный взгляд на эволюцию в целом.

С 1837 года Дарвин начал вести дневник, в который вносил данные о породах домашних животных и сортах растений, а также соображения о естественном отборе. В 1842 году написал первый очерк о происхождении видов. Начиная с 1855 года Дарвин переписывался с американским ботаником А. Греем, которому через два года и изложил свои идеи. Под влиянием английского геолога и естествоиспытателя Ч. Лайеля Дарвин в 1856 начал готовить третий, расширенный вариант книги. В июне 1858 года, когда работа была выполнена наполовину, получил письмо от английского натуралиста А. Р. Уоллеса с рукописью статьи последнего. В этой статье Дарвин обнаружил сокращённое изложение своей собственной теории естественного отбора. Два натуралиста независимо и одновременно разработали идентичные теории. На обоих оказала влияние работа Т. Р. Мальтуса о народонаселении, обоим были известны взгляды Лайеля, оба изучали фауну, флору и геологические формации групп островов и обнаружили значительные различия между населяющими их видами. Дарвин отослал Лайелю рукопись Уоллеса вместе со своим собственным очерком, а также набросками его второго варианта (1844) и копией своего письма к А. Грею (1857). Лайель обратился за советом к английскому ботанику Джозефу Гукеру, и 1 июля 1858 года они вместе представили Линнеевскому обществу в Лондоне обе работы. В 1859 году Дарвин опубликовал труд «Происхождение видов путём естественного отбора, или Сохранение благоприятствуемых пород в борьбе за жизнь» (On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life), где показал изменчивость видов растений и животных, их естественное происхождение от более ранних видов. Первый тираж в 1250 экземпляров был полностью распродан в течение двух дней. Книга издаётся и продаётся до сих пор.

В 1868 году Дарвин опубликовал свой второй труд на тему эволюции — «Изменение животных и растений в домашнем состоянии» (The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication), в который вошло множество примеров эволюции организмов. В 1871 году появился ещё один важный труд Дарвина — «Происхождение человека и половой отбор» (The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex), где Дарвин привёл аргументы в пользу естественного происхождения человека от животных (обезьяноподобных предков). Среди других известных поздних работ Дарвина — «Опыление у орхидных» (The Fertilization of Orchids, 1862); «Выражение эмоций у человека и животных» (The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872); «Действие перекрёстного опыления и самоопыления в растительном мире» (The Effects of Cross- and Self-Fertilization in the Vegetable Kingdom, 1876).

https://ru.wikipedia.org

Charles Robert Darwin (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution. His proposition that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors is now widely accepted, and considered a foundational concept in science. In a joint publication with Alfred Russel Wallace, he introduced his scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

Darwin published his theory of evolution with compelling evidence in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species. By the 1870s, the scientific community and a majority of the educated public had accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of the modern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed in which natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.

Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge (Christ's College) encouraged his passion for natural science. His five-year voyage on HMS Beagle established him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.[16]

Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations, and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority. He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay that described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories. Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature. In 1871 he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals (1872). His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, The Formation of Vegetable Mould, through the Actions of Worms (1881), he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.

Darwin now had the framework of his theory of natural selection "by which to work", as his "prime hobby". His research included extensive experimental selective breeding of plants and animals, finding evidence that species were not fixed and investigating many detailed ideas to refine and substantiate his theory. For fifteen years this work was in the background to his main occupation of writing on geology and publishing expert reports on the Beagle collections.

When FitzRoy's Narrative was published in May 1839, Darwin's Journal and Remarks was such a success as the third volume that later that year it was published on its own. Early in 1842, Darwin wrote about his ideas to Charles Lyell, who noted that his ally "denies seeing a beginning to each crop of species".

Darwin's book The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs on his theory of atoll formation was published in May 1842 after more than three years of work, and he then wrote his first "pencil sketch" of his theory of natural selection. To escape the pressures of London, the family moved to rural Down House in September. On 11 January 1844, Darwin mentioned his theorising to the botanist Joseph Dalton Hooker, writing with melodramatic humour "it is like confessing a murder". Hooker replied "There may in my opinion have been a series of productions on different spots, & also a gradual change of species. I shall be delighted to hear how you think that this change may have taken place, as no presently conceived opinions satisfy me on the subject."

By the start of 1856, Darwin was investigating whether eggs and seeds could survive travel across seawater to spread species across oceans. Hookerincreasingly doubted the traditional view that species were fixed, but their young friend Thomas Henry Huxley was firmly against the transmutation of species. Lyell was intrigued by Darwin's speculations without realising their extent. When he read a paper by Alfred Russel Wallace, "On the Law which has Regulated the Introduction of New Species", he saw similarities with Darwin's thoughts and urged him to publish to establish precedence. Though Darwin saw no threat, on 14 May 1856 he began writing a short paper. Finding answers to difficult questions held him up repeatedly, and he expanded his plans to a "big book on species" titled Natural Selection, which was to include his "note on Man". He continued his researches, obtaining information and specimens from naturalists worldwide including Wallace who was working in Borneo. In mid-1857 he added a section heading; "Theory applied to Races of Man", but did not add text on this topic. On 5 September 1857, Darwin sent the American botanist Asa Gray a detailed outline of his ideas, including an abstract of Natural Selection, which omitted human origins and sexual selection. In December, Darwin received a letter from Wallace asking if the book would examine human origins. He responded that he would avoid that subject, "so surrounded with prejudices", while encouraging Wallace's theorising and adding that "I go much further than you."

Darwin's book was only partly written when, on 18 June 1858, he received a paper from Wallace describing natural selection. Shocked that he had been "forestalled", Darwin sent it on that day to Lyell, as requested by Wallace, and although Wallace had not asked for publication, Darwin suggested he would send it to any journal that Wallace chose. His family was in crisis with children in the village dying of scarlet fever, and he put matters in the hands of his friends. After some discussion, Lyell and Hooker decided on a joint presentation at the Linnean Society on 1 July of On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. On the evening of 28 June, Darwin's baby son died of scarlet fever after almost a week of severe illness, and he was too distraught to attend.

There was little immediate attention to this announcement of the theory; the president of the Linnean Society remarked in May 1859 that the year had not been marked by any revolutionary discoveries. Only one review rankled enough for Darwin to recall it later; Professor Samuel Haughton of Dublin claimed that "all that was new in them was false, and what was true was old". Darwin struggled for thirteen months to produce an abstract of his "big book", suffering from ill health but getting constant encouragement from his scientific friends. Lyell arranged to have it published by John Murray.

https://en.wikipedia.org

 

Category: История науки- Нistory of science | Added by: zvonimirveres
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